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The Science of Stress: What You Need to Know

What Is Stress?


Stress is the body's response to any demand or threat. It is a feeling of mental, emotional or physical tension. Stress is a normal and necessary part of life, and is a natural response to the challenges and demands we encounter on a daily basis. In small doses, stress can help motivate and energize us. However, when stress becomes chronic, it can have negative effects on our overall health and well-being.



The Stress Response


The stress response, also known as the "fight or flight" response, is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived threat or challenge. When the body is faced with a stressor, it activates a number of physiological and behavioural responses in order to prepare the body to deal with the stressor. When we encounter a stressful situation, our body reacts by releasing stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenaline.


Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to stress. Cortisol helps regulate blood pressure and metabolism. When the stress response is activated too frequently or for too long, it can lead to an excess levels of cortisol in the body. High levels of cortisol can have negative effects on the body, including impairing immune function, disrupting sleep, and contributing to weight gain and other health problems.


Adrenaline is another hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to stress. Adrenaline plays a number of important roles in the body, including increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and energy levels, and preparing the body for physical activity. When the stress response is activated too frequently or for too long, it can lead to an excess of adrenaline in the body. High levels of adrenaline can increase the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular problems.



A stressor can be defined as anything that throws your body out of allostatic balance and the stress response is your body’s attempt to restore allostasis. Regardless of the stressor - injury, hungry, too hot, too cold, mental stress, emotional stress - you turn on the same stress response. The secretion of certain hormones, the inhibition of others, the activation of particular parts of the nervous system, dilation and constriction of blood vessels, release of neurotransmitters - are influenced by stress. One of the most distinctive changes during a stress response is the rapid mobilization of energy from storage sites and the inhibition of further storage.


Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells, but it is not the only one. Glucose and the simplest forms of proteins and fats come flushing out of your fat cells, liver and muscles, all to stoke whichever muscles are needed (Fight or Flight response). When the body mobilizes all that glucose, it needs to deliver it to the critical muscles as quickly as possible. Heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate increase, all to transport nutrients and oxygen at quicker rates.


Understanding Allostasis


Allostasis is the process by which the body adjusts to changes in its internal and external environment. It involves a range of physiological, behavioral, and psychological responses that help the body maintain homeostasis, or a state of balance. Allostasis is an important aspect of the body's stress response system, as it helps the body cope with and adapt to challenges such as illness, injury, or environmental changes.


When the body is faced with a stressor, it activates the allostatic response, which can involve the release of hormones, changes in blood flow, and other physiological changes that help the body cope with the stressor. Over time, repeated or chronic activation of the allostatic response can lead to allostatic overload, which can have negative impacts on physical and mental health.


What Your Body Does To Adapt To Stress


During an emergency, it makes sense that your body halts long-term, expensive building projects. During stress, digestion is inhibited - the benefits gained from the slow process of digestion becomes less important in a time of demand; the body needs energy immediately. The same thing goes for growth and reproduction, both expensive, optimistic things to be doing with your body.


During a state of stress, growth and tissue repair halts, sexual drive decreases in both sexes; females are less likely to ovulate, or to carry pregnancies to term, while males begin to have trouble with erections and secrete less testosterone. Stress causes the dilation of blood vessels in certain parts of the body, such as the muscles and brain, while constricting blood vessels in other parts, such as the skin and digestive system.


Another feature of the stress response becomes apparent during times of extreme physical pain. With sufficiently sustained stress, our perception of pain can become blunted. Pain might be reduced for survival purposes if a person is injured and needs to flee from a dangerous situation, such as a fire or an attack. In this case, the body's stress response system would be activated, releasing adrenaline and cortisol. These hormones can help to suppress the sensation of pain, allowing the person to focus on escaping danger and finding safety.


Along with these changes, your immune system is inhibited. The job of the immune system is to defend against infection and illness while producing antibodies to protect you in the future, but is it really needed this instant? The body has adapted to focus on what is needed at the given moment. These adaptations help us survive, however, chronic stress blocks the body’s natural healing capabilities and negatively affects overall health and well-being.


The Importance of Managing Stress


Stress can have a number of negative effects on both physical and mental health. Prolonged or chronic stress can lead to a wide range of health problems, including anxiety, depression, heart disease, digestive problems, sleep disturbances, weight gain, and a weakened immune system.


It is therefore important to try to regulate and reduce stress levels in order to maintain overall health and well-being. There are many different ways to help reduce stress, including exercise, osteopathic treatment, massage therapy, meditation, deep breathing, relaxation techniques, good time management, and seeking support from friends, family or a healthcare professional. By taking steps to reduce stress, you can improve your physical and mental health and enhance your overall quality of life.

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